Two major cruise organizations, the Cruise Lines International Association and the European Cruise Council, have adopted two new safety policies: the Nationality of Passengers policy, and Common Elements of Musters and Emergency Instructions policy. The first requires the nationality of each passenger onboard a cruise ship to be recorded and made readily available to search-and-rescue personnel. Under the Common Elements policy, member cruise lines have specified 12 common elements that will be communicated to passengers during muster drills and emergency instructions. Among those are an explanation of emergency-routing systems. Both policies exceed current international regulatory requirements and result from the Cruise Industry Operational Safety Review launched in January 2012, following the Costa Concordia accident.